Sunday, March 02, 2008

Indian Lunar Calendar

Year Start of year End of year 60 year cycle
The Indian lunar calendar is based on movement of both luminaries Sun and the Moon in the sidereal zodiac. One should note the difference between Indian Lunar Calendar and the Chinese Lunar Calendar. While Indian Lunar Calendar is based on sidereal zodiac, the Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on tropical zodiac and hence the Indian Lunar months are not synchronized with seasons, but fixed stars (or the nakshatras), while Chinese Lunar Calendar is synchronized with seasons. This indicates the importance of fixed zodiac not only in astrology but also celebration of the festivals.

Since the Lunar Calendar is synchronized with the Sidereal Zodiac, the lunar months are tagged to sidereal signs. This means based on the sign occupied by Sun in the sidereal zodiac, the lunar month will bear the same name. For example, Chaitra, the 1st month of Lunar Calendar is tagged to sidereal Pisces. The names of the months are given by the name of the nakshatra, the Moon is expected to be placed while Sun transits a sign. This also shows that naming of the month is based on Shuklanta principle, which suggests beginning of a month with Krishna Pratipad. The relationship of the lunar months and the sidereal signs are as follows:

Chaitra - Meena - Pisces
Vaishakh - Mesha - Aries
Jyeshtha - Vrshabha - Taurus
Ashadha - Mithuna - Gemini
Sravana - Karkata - Cancer
Bhadra - Simha - Leo
Ashwin - Kanya - Virgo
Kartik - Tula - Libra
Mrigashira- Vrshchik - Scorpio
Pausha - Dhanu - Sagittarius
Magha - Makar - Capricorn
Phalgun - Kumbha - Aquarius

Although the names of the month are given based on Shuklanta principle, the most widely followed calendar is Amanta which begins with Shukla Pratipad. The Lunar year begins with Chaitra Masa, the time when Sun and Moon conjoin in sidereal Pisces.

Adhika & Kshaya Masa
There are few variations in the reckoning of the month, due to the differences in the duration of lunar year and the sidereal year by approximately 10 days. The types of variations are given below:

Adhika Masa:
When two new Moon falls in one sidereal sign, the first among them is treated as a extra month or Adhika Masa while the 2nd one of them is called the actual month or nija masa. Whenever this happens, the 1st new Moon falls in the 1st degree of the sign, while the 2nd one falls in the last degree of the sign.

The adhika masa bears the name of the sign where it happens. Thus if it happens in Aries, it becomes Vaishakh adhika masa and so on.

Kshaya Masa:
Khsaya masa means loss of month. This happens when there is no soli-lunar conjunction in a sign. This is a rare phenomenon as is counter intuitive that how can a bigger measure of time i.e., Saura masa be smaller than a chandra masa. Thus this requires further investigation. It happens in a period of 19 years and 141 years.


60 Years Cycle:
The lunar calendar is completely synchronizes with the solar calendar in a period of 60 years. This concept is similar to the Chinese calendar which indicate repetition of combination of element and animal. In the Indian calendar, each of the 60 years are given a specif name which indicate towards overall results to be experienced in that year. The cycle follows the cycle of creation, sustenance and annihilation of the creative force. To understand it better, this can be mapped to the 30 tithi cycle of the Moon, which also passes through creation and increase in life force as signified by the Shukla Paksha and decrease of the life force as well as destruction as signified by the Krshna Paksha.

Since each of the year is spanning over two tithis, we can also map the year with half of tithi called Karana. There are 4 fixed karanas names Kimsthughna, Shakuni, Chatushpād and Nāgava which are mapped to 1st half of 1st half of Shukla Pratipad, 2nd half of Krisna Chaturdasi, 1st and 2nd half of Amavasya respectively. While rest 7 karanas are called the movable karanas and repeat in the sequence of Bava, Bālava, Kaulava, Taitula, Garajā, Vanijā and Vishti (Bhadrā) from 2nd half of Shukla pratipad to 1st half of Krsna chaturdasi. The fixed karanas are known be troublesome and vicious.


The years of the 60 years cycle and its mapping to Tithis and Karanas are

YEAR TITHI KARANA
1.Prabhava - Shukla Pratipad - Kimstughna**
2.Vibhava - Shukla Pratipad - Bava
3.Shukla - Shukla Dvitiya - Balava
4.Pramoda - Shukla Dvitiya - Kaulava
5.Prajāpati - Shukla Tritiya - Taitula
6.Āngirasa - Shukla Tritiya - Garajā
7.Shrīmukha - Shukla Chaturthi - Vanijā
8.Bhāva - Shukla Chaturthi - Vishti (Bhadrā)
9.Yuvan - Shukla Panchami - Bava
10.Dhātri - Shukla Panchami - Balava
11.Īshvara - Shukla Shasthi - Kaulava
12.Bahudhānya - Shukla Shasthi - Taitula
13.Pramāthin - Shukla Saptami - Garajā
14.Vikrama - Shukla Saptami - Vanijā
15.Vrisha - Shukla Ashtami - Vishti (Bhadrā)
16.Chitrabhānu - Shukla Ashtami - Bava
17.Svabhānu - Shukla Navami - Balava
18.Tārana - Shukla Navami - Kaulava
19.Pārthiva - Shukla Dasami - Taitula
20.Vyaya - Shukla Dasami - Garajā
21.Sarvajit - Shukla Ekadasi - Vanijā
22.Sarvadhārin - Shukla Ekadasi - Vishti (Bhadrā)
23.Virodhin - Shukla Dvadasi - Bava
24.Vikrita - Shukla Dvadasi - Balava
25.Khara - Shukla Trayodasi - Kaulava
26.Nandana - Shukla Trayodasi - Taitula
27.Vijaya - Shukla Chaturdasi - Garajā
28.Jaya - Shukla Chaturdasi - Vanijā
29.Manmatha - Purnima - Vishti (Bhadrā)
30.Durmukha - Purnima - Bava
31.Hemalambin - Krsna Pratipad - Balava
32.Vilambin - Krsna Pratipad - Kaulava
33.Vikārin - Krsna Dvitiya - Taitula
34.Shārvari - Krsna Dvitiya - Garajā
35.Plava - Krsna Tritiya - Vanijā
36.Shubhakrit - Krsna Tritiya - Vishti (Bhadrā)
37.Shobhana - Krsna Chaturthi - Bava
38.Krodhin - Krsna Chaturthi - Balava
39.Vishvāvasu - Krsna Panchami - Kaulava
40.Parābhava - Krsna Panchami - Taitula
41.Plavanga - Krsna Shasthi - Garajā
42.Kīlaka - Krsna Shasthi - Vanijā
43.Saumya - Krsna Saptami - Vishti (Bhadrā)
44.Sādhārana - Krsna Saptami - Bava
45.Virodhikrit - Krsna Ashtami - Balava
46.Paritāpin - Krsna Ashtami - Kaulava
47.Pramādin - Krsna Navami - Taitula
48.Ānanda - Krsna Navami - Garajā
49.Rākshasa - Krsna Dasami - Vanijā
50.Anala - Krsna Dasami - Vishti (Bhadrā)
51.Pingala - Krsna Ekadasi - Bava
52.Kālayukti - Krsna Ekadasi - Balava
53.Siddhārthin - Krsna Dvadasi - Kaulava
54.Raudra - Krsna Dvadasi - Taitula
55.Durmati - Krsna Trayodasi - Garajā
56.Dundubhi - Krsna Trayodasi - Vanijā
57.Rudhirodgārin- Krsna Chaturdasi - Vishti (Bhadrā)
58.Raktāksha - Krsna Chaturdasi - Shakuni**
59.Krodhana - Amavasya - Chatushpād**
60.Akshaya - Amavasya - Nāgava**

** Sthira (fixed) karana



Details of years between 1947 and 2066 (120 years):
1947: (22 Mar 1947 22:04:45 - 09 Apr 1948 18:47:15) - 21 - Sarvajit
1948: (09 Apr 1948 18:47:15 - 29 Mar 1949 20:41:24) - 22 - Sarvadhārin
1949: (29 Mar 1949 20:41:24 - 18 Mar 1950 20:50:46) - 23 - Virodhin
1950: (18 Mar 1950 20:50:46 - 06 Apr 1951 16:22:21) - 24 - Vikrita
1951: (06 Apr 1951 16:22:21 - 26 Mar 1952 01:43:13) - 25 - Khara
1952: (26 Mar 1952 01:43:13 - 15 Mar 1953 16:35:34) - 26 - Nandana
1953: (15 Mar 1953 16:35:34 - 03 Apr 1954 17:55:33) - 27 - Vijaya
1954: (03 Apr 1954 17:55:33 - 24 Mar 1955 09:13:05) - 28 - Jaya
1955: (24 Mar 1955 09:13:05 - 11 Apr 1956 08:09:28) - 29 - Manmatha
1956: (11 Apr 1956 08:09:28 - 31 Mar 1957 14:49:41) - 30 - Durmukha
1957: (31 Mar 1957 14:49:41 - 20 Mar 1958 15:20:32) - 31 - Hemalambin
1958: (20 Mar 1958 15:20:32 - 08 Apr 1959 08:59:46) - 32 - Vilambin
1959: (08 Apr 1959 08:59:46 - 27 Mar 1960 13:08:00) - 33 - Vikārin
1960: (27 Mar 1960 13:08:00 - 17 Mar 1961 00:21:13) - 34 - Shārvari
1961: (17 Mar 1961 00:21:13 - 05 Apr 1962 01:15:20) - 35 - Plava
1962: (05 Apr 1962 01:15:20 - 25 Mar 1963 17:40:14) - 36 - Shubhakrit
1963: (25 Mar 1963 17:40:14 - 14 Mar 1964 07:44:25) - 37 - Shobhana
1964: (14 Mar 1964 07:44:25 - 02 Apr 1965 05:51:13) - 38 - Krodhin
1965: (02 Apr 1965 05:51:13 - 22 Mar 1966 10:16:50) - 39 - Vishvāvasu
1966: (22 Mar 1966 10:16:50 - 10 Apr 1967 03:50:53) - 40 - Parābhava
1967: (10 Apr 1967 03:50:53 - 29 Mar 1968 04:18:44) - 41 - Plavanga
1968: (29 Mar 1968 04:18:44 - 18 Mar 1969 10:22:01) - 42 - Kīlaka
1969: (18 Mar 1969 10:22:01 - 06 Apr 1970 09:39:59) - 43 - Saumya
1970: (06 Apr 1970 09:39:59 - 27 Mar 1971 00:54:04) - 44 - Sādhārana
1971: (27 Mar 1971 00:54:04 - 15 Mar 1972 17:05:17) - 45 - Virodhikrit
1972: (15 Mar 1972 17:05:17 - 03 Apr 1973 17:15:41) - 46 - Paritāpin
1973: (03 Apr 1973 17:15:41 - 24 Mar 1974 02:54:40) - 47 - Pramādin
1974: (24 Mar 1974 02:54:40 - 11 Apr 1975 22:09:44) - 48 - Ānanda
1975: (11 Apr 1975 22:09:44 - 30 Mar 1976 22:38:42) - 49 - Rākshasa
1976: (30 Mar 1976 22:38:42 - 20 Mar 1977 00:03:22) - 50 - Anala
1977: (20 Mar 1977 00:03:22 - 07 Apr 1978 20:45:50) - 51 - Pingala
1978: (07 Apr 1978 20:45:50 - 28 Mar 1979 08:30:06) - 52 - Kālayukti
1979: (28 Mar 1979 08:30:06 - 17 Mar 1980 00:26:28) - 53 - Siddhārthin
1980: (17 Mar 1980 00:26:28 - 05 Apr 1981 01:50:02) - 54 - Raudra
1981: (05 Apr 1981 01:50:02 - 25 Mar 1982 15:48:08) - 55 - Durmati
1982: (25 Mar 1982 15:48:08 - 13 Apr 1983 13:29:00) - 56 - Dundubhi
1983: (13 Apr 1983 13:29:00 - 01 Apr 1984 17:40:19) - 57 - Rudhirodgārin
1984: (01 Apr 1984 17:40:19 - 21 Mar 1985 17:29:28) - 58 - Raktāksha
1985: (21 Mar 1985 17:29:28 - 09 Apr 1986 11:38:53) - 59 - Krodhana
1986: (09 Apr 1986 11:38:53 - 29 Mar 1987 18:16:13) - 60 - Akshaya
1987: (29 Mar 1987 18:16:13 - 18 Mar 1988 07:32:56) - 01 - Prabhava
1988: (18 Mar 1988 07:32:56 - 06 Apr 1989 09:03:17) - 02 - Vibhava
1989: (06 Apr 1989 09:03:17 - 27 Mar 1990 01:18:56) - 03 - Shukla
1990: (27 Mar 1990 01:18:56 - 16 Mar 1991 13:41:10) - 04 - Pramoda
1991: (16 Mar 1991 13:41:10 - 03 Apr 1992 10:32:10) - 05 - Prajāpati
1992: (03 Apr 1992 10:32:10 - 23 Mar 1993 12:45:12) - 06 - Āngirasa
1993: (23 Mar 1993 12:45:12 - 11 Apr 1994 05:47:52) - 07 - Shrīmukha
1994: (11 Apr 1994 05:47:52 - 31 Mar 1995 07:39:21) - 08 - Bhāva
1995: (31 Mar 1995 07:39:21 - 19 Mar 1996 16:15:22) - 09 - Yuvan
1996: (19 Mar 1996 16:15:22 - 07 Apr 1997 16:32:30) - 10 - Dhātri
1997: (07 Apr 1997 16:32:30 - 28 Mar 1998 08:44:13) - 11 - Īshvara
1998: (28 Mar 1998 08:44:13 - 18 Mar 1999 00:18:34) - 12 - Bahudhānya
1999: (18 Mar 1999 00:18:34 - 04 Apr 2000 23:42:40) - 13 - Pramāthin
2000: (04 Apr 2000 23:42:40 - 25 Mar 2001 06:51:44) - 14 - Vikrama
2001: (25 Mar 2001 06:51:44 - 13 Apr 2002 00:51:54) - 15 - Vrisha
2002: (13 Apr 2002 00:51:54 - 02 Apr 2003 00:49:28) - 16 - Chitrabhānu
2003: (02 Apr 2003 00:49:28 - 21 Mar 2004 04:12:01) - 17 - Svabhānu
2004: (21 Mar 2004 04:12:01 - 09 Apr 2005 02:02:39) - 18 - Tārana
2005: (09 Apr 2005 02:02:39 - 29 Mar 2006 15:45:49) - 19 - Pārthiva
2006: (29 Mar 2006 15:45:49 - 19 Mar 2007 08:13:07) - 20 - Vyaya
2007: (19 Mar 2007 08:13:07 - 06 Apr 2008 09:25:51) - 21 - Sarvajit
2008: (06 Apr 2008 09:25:51 - 26 Mar 2009 21:36:33) - 22 - Sarvadhārin
2009: (26 Mar 2009 21:36:33 - 16 Mar 2010 02:31:47) - 23 - Virodhin
2010: (16 Mar 2010 02:31:47 - 03 Apr 2011 20:03:02) - 24 - Vikrita
2011: (03 Apr 2011 20:03:02 - 22 Mar 2012 20:07:47) - 25 - Khara
2012: (22 Mar 2012 20:07:47 - 10 Apr 2013 15:05:56) - 26 - Nandana
2013: (10 Apr 2013 15:05:56 - 31 Mar 2014 00:15:13) - 27 - Vijaya
2014: (31 Mar 2014 00:15:13 - 20 Mar 2015 15:06:40) - 28 - Jaya
2015: (20 Mar 2015 15:06:40 - 07 Apr 2016 16:54:08) - 29 - Manmatha
2016: (07 Apr 2016 16:54:08 - 28 Mar 2017 08:27:43) - 30 - Durmukha
2017: (28 Mar 2017 08:27:43 - 17 Mar 2018 18:42:08) - 31 - Hemalambin
2018: (17 Mar 2018 18:42:08 - 05 Apr 2019 14:21:03) - 32 - Vilambin
2019: (05 Apr 2019 14:21:03 - 24 Mar 2020 14:58:49) - 33 - Vikārin
2020: (24 Mar 2020 14:58:49 - 12 Apr 2021 08:01:25) - 34 - Shārvari
2021: (12 Apr 2021 08:01:25 - 01 Apr 2022 11:54:54) - 35 - Plava
2022: (01 Apr 2022 11:54:54 - 21 Mar 2023 22:53:32) - 36 - Shubhakrit
2023: (21 Mar 2023 22:53:32 - 08 Apr 2024 23:51:12) - 37 - Shobhana
2024: (08 Apr 2024 23:51:12 - 29 Mar 2025 16:28:09) - 38 - Krodhin
2025: (29 Mar 2025 16:28:09 - 19 Mar 2026 06:53:50) - 39 - Vishvāvasu
2026: (19 Mar 2026 06:53:50 - 07 Apr 2027 05:21:32) - 40 - Parābhava
2027: (07 Apr 2027 05:21:32 - 26 Mar 2028 10:01:45) - 41 - Plavanga
2028: (26 Mar 2028 10:01:45 - 15 Mar 2029 09:49:40) - 42 - Kīlaka
2029: (15 Mar 2029 09:49:40 - 03 Apr 2030 03:32:55) - 43 - Saumya
2030: (03 Apr 2030 03:32:55 - 23 Mar 2031 09:19:23) - 44 - Sādhārana
2031: (23 Mar 2031 09:19:23 - 10 Apr 2032 08:09:44) - 45 - Virodhikrit
2032: (10 Apr 2032 08:09:44 - 30 Mar 2033 23:21:49) - 46 - Paritāpin
2033: (30 Mar 2033 23:21:49 - 20 Mar 2034 15:44:45) - 47 - Pramādin
2034: (20 Mar 2034 15:44:45 - 08 Apr 2035 16:27:59) - 48 - Ānanda
2035: (08 Apr 2035 16:27:59 - 28 Mar 2036 02:26:59) - 49 - Rākshasa
2036: (28 Mar 2036 02:26:59 - 17 Mar 2037 05:06:31) - 50 - Anala
2037: (17 Mar 2037 05:06:31 - 04 Apr 2038 22:13:16) - 51 - Pingala
2038: (04 Apr 2038 22:13:16 - 24 Mar 2039 23:29:43) - 52 - Kālayukti
2039: (24 Mar 2039 23:29:43 - 11 Apr 2040 19:30:21) - 53 - Siddhārthin
2040: (11 Apr 2040 19:30:21 - 01 Apr 2041 06:59:30) - 54 - Raudra
2041: (01 Apr 2041 06:59:30 - 21 Mar 2042 22:53:02) - 55 - Durmati
2042: (21 Mar 2042 22:53:02 - 10 Apr 2043 00:36:38) - 56 - Dundubhi
2043: (10 Apr 2043 00:36:38 - 29 Mar 2044 14:56:03) - 57 - Rudhirodgārin
2044: (29 Mar 2044 14:56:03 - 18 Mar 2045 22:44:59) - 58 - Raktāksha
2045: (18 Mar 2045 22:44:59 - 06 Apr 2046 17:21:48) - 59 - Krodhana
2046: (06 Apr 2046 17:21:48 - 26 Mar 2047 17:14:18) - 60 - Akshaya
2047: (26 Mar 2047 17:14:18 - 14 Mar 2048 19:57:41) - 01 - Prabhava
2048: (14 Mar 2048 19:57:41 - 02 Apr 2049 17:09:10) - 02 - Vibhava
2049: (02 Apr 2049 17:09:10 - 23 Mar 2050 06:10:47) - 03 - Shukla
2050: (23 Mar 2050 06:10:47 - 11 Apr 2051 07:29:06) - 04 - Pramoda
2051: (11 Apr 2051 07:29:06 - 30 Mar 2052 23:57:07) - 05 - Prajāpati
2052: (30 Mar 2052 23:57:07 - 20 Mar 2053 12:41:26) - 06 - Āngirasa
2053: (20 Mar 2053 12:41:26 - 08 Apr 2054 10:02:32) - 07 - Shrīmukha
2054: (08 Apr 2054 10:02:32 - 28 Mar 2055 12:30:50) - 08 - Bhāva
2055: (28 Mar 2055 12:30:50 - 16 Mar 2056 12:22:29) - 09 - Yuvan
2056: (16 Mar 2056 12:22:29 - 04 Apr 2057 07:01:31) - 10 - Dhātri
2057: (04 Apr 2057 07:01:31 - 24 Mar 2058 15:19:51) - 11 - Īshvara
2058: (24 Mar 2058 15:19:51 - 12 Apr 2059 14:58:47) - 12 - Bahudhānya
2059: (12 Apr 2059 14:58:47 - 01 Apr 2060 07:07:40) - 13 - Pramāthin
2060: (01 Apr 2060 07:07:40 - 21 Mar 2061 22:53:17) - 14 - Vikrama
2061: (21 Mar 2061 22:53:17 - 09 Apr 2062 22:47:09) - 15 - Vrisha
2062: (09 Apr 2062 22:47:09 - 30 Mar 2063 06:19:44) - 16 - Chitrabhānu
2063: (30 Mar 2063 06:19:44 - 18 Mar 2064 07:15:18) - 17 - Svabhānu
2064: (18 Mar 2064 07:15:18 - 06 Apr 2065 00:31:09) - 18 - Tārana
2065: (06 Apr 2065 00:31:09 - 26 Mar 2066 03:43:47) - 19 - Pārthiva
2066: (26 Mar 2066 03:43:47 - 15 Mar 2067 13:59:03) - 20 - Vyaya

3 comments:

ankit jain said...

sir i want to know the day and date according to new english calendar pls help me out

1967-vaishakh shukla aastami


my email id is: ank_hawk@yahoo.com


i will be very grateful to you.

Le Papillon said...

My Name Is Ajinkya Anant Jawalkar
Born 16th September 1986 Tuesday Time 5:30 PM i.e. 17:30
Place: Pune
Do My Astrology And Numerology if Possible.

Anil Sharma said...

sir i want to know the year in which there were two months of sawan. Was that 1966? if yes Please let me know the day and date of the amashya tithi of the second sawan as I born on that day and do not know my date of birth.

my email id is: sharma.anil1210@gmil.com

i will be very grateful to you.